گامی به‌سوی سنخ‌شناسی انتقادی هویت کارآفرینانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی ـ پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری کارآفرینی، دانشکدۀ کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار کارآفرینی، دانشکدۀ کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار مدیریت، دانشکدۀ مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار کارآفرینی، دانشکدۀ کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر در پی طرح سنخ‌بندی انتقادی هویت کارآفرینانه است. اتکا بر رهیافت انتقادی به‌ویژه تعریف عقلانیت از منظر یورگن هابرماس و ابعاد مربوط به چارچوب مفهومیِ ناظر بر سنخ‌بندی هویت کارآفرینانه، از یک‌سو به شکل‌گیری قطبیتِ عقلانیت رهایی‌بخش در برابر عقلانیت ابزاری، و از سوی دیگر به قطبیتِ فردمداری در برابر جامعه‌مداری می‌انجامد که در نتیجۀ آن چهار سنخ هویت کارآفرینانه شامل آزادی‌خواهی، استقلال‌‌طلبی، نظم‌طلبی و سودجویی معرفی شده‌اند. در ادامه، جایگاه هر یک از این سنخ‌های هویتی در شناخت اقسام گوناگون کارآفرینی، بررسی و ضمن مقایسۀ این هویت‌ها، چهار نوع کارآفرینی شامل کارآفرینی عمومی، کارآفرینی سبک‌ زندگی، کارآفرینی بوروکراتیک و کارآفرینی تجاری معرفی و دلالت‌های مفهومی این نوع سنخ‌شناسی طرح می‌گردند. پاین پژوهش علاوه‌بر غنای مطالعات هویت کارآفرینانه از طریق به پیش کشیدن نقش عقلانیت و قضاوت دربارهٔ جامعه، به تفاوت و تعارض این هویت‌ها نیز اشاره دارد . اتکا به مواضع نظریهٔ انتقادی در مطالعهٔ هویت کارآفرینانه، گامی است در راستای تعمیق سرشت میان‌رشته‌ایِ پژوهش کارآفرینی.

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