Underdevelopment is the main problem in developing countries including Iran. This problem always has been concerned of thinker and policy makers after the Islamic Revolution that has created multiple discourses and has made different relations with development planning in different periods. The Period after the Islamic Revolution until 2013 within five social situations was studied based on situational analysis method (logic of the situation) for describing obstacles of development planning. It has been tried to analyze situation of development planning, especially oriented to critical humanities in each period. Actors, institutions and main streams that effect process of planning and making decision have been evaluated. Results show that development planning and modernization processes in Iran face to fundamental challenges in two theoretical (critical rationalism) and practical (social engineering) levels. Success in development planning in terms of epistemology requires realistic understanding of problems, progress humanities and critic thoughts and also it needs gradual reforms, critic of performances and expanding social participation in policy processes in social aspect.